088 – Twilight of the communes

Before saying goodbye to the 13th century, we take a quick tour of the peninsula to tie up some loose ends, such as the maritime, republics, Piedmont and the situation with the communes.

074 – Goodbye Freddie II

We see the reign of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II to its end as he faces off with Gregory IX and then Innocent IV, all the while dealing with the ever rebellious communes of northern Italy in their continuous struggle between pro-imperial Ghibellines and pro-papal Guelphs, up to the Battle of Parma in 1247.

063 – After Legnano, the cool Crusade and the Italian one

We take a look at the aftermath of the battle of Legnano which saw the forces of the Lombard League victorious against Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. Then we take a quick look at the third and fourth Crusades.

062 – The battle of Legnano

Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa and the Cities of the Lombard League gather their forces and clash at a small town outside of Milan, called Legnano. The battle would echo through the centuries to be remembered in Italian politics to this day.