107 – An unexpected king

While everyone (the Pope, the king of France, Milan, Verona, Venice, Florence etc.) is manoeuvring in northern Italy along comes an unexpected king, John of Luxembourg, king of Bohemia. Will he be able to unite the northern cities?

106 – An imperial tour of Italy (1327-1329)

We follow the descent into Italy of Holy Roman Emperor Luis IV to visit with the Visconti in Milan, the Dalla Scala in Verona, the Este of Ferrara, the Castracani in Lucca and the Gonzaga in Mantua. At the same time we see the struggle between emperor and pope and get a reminder fo the situation in Naples and Sicily.

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088 – Twilight of the communes

Before saying goodbye to the 13th century, we take a quick tour of the peninsula to tie up some loose ends, such as the maritime republics, Piedmont and the situation with the communes.

074 – Goodbye Freddie II

We see the reign of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II to its end as he faces off with Gregory IX and then Innocent IV, all the while dealing with the ever rebellious communes of northern Italy in their continuous struggle between pro-imperial Ghibellines and pro-papal Guelphs, up to the Battle of Parma in 1247.