We see the reign of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II to its end as he faces off with Gregory IX and then Innocent IV, all the while dealing with the ever rebellious communes of northern Italy in their continuous struggle between pro-imperial Ghibellines and pro-papal Guelphs, up to the Battle of Parma in 1247.
We take a look at the aftermath of the battle of Legnano which saw the forces of the Lombard League victorious against Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa. Then we take a quick look at the third and fourth Crusades.
Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa and the Cities of the Lombard League gather their forces and clash at a small town outside of Milan, called Legnano. The battle would echo through the centuries to be remembered in Italian politics to this day.
In this first ever crossover episode, we talk to Steve Guerra of the History of the Papacy podcast about the Lombards. This is part 1 of 2.
The investiture controversy heats up with an anti-king elected in Germany and an anti-pope elected by Henry IV who then take the fight against Gregory and Matilde down into Italy with the Normans of Robert Guiscard waiting in the wings.