062 – The battle of Legnano

Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa and the Cities of the Lombard League gather their forces and clash at a small town outside of Milan, called Legnano. The battle would echo through the centuries to be remembered in Italian politics to this day.

040 – Half-time in the investiture controversy

The investiture controversy heats up with an anti-king elected in Germany and an anti-pope elected by Henry IV who then take the fight against Gregory and Matilde down into Italy with the Normans of Robert Guiscard waiting in the wings.