We see how, after sorting out Milan, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa also goes on to try and deal with pope Alexander III. Meanwhile, the communes start to learn that there can be strength in numbers, with the League of Verona in 1164 and the Lombard and Italic Leagues in 1167.
We take a look at how a new form of local government, the Communes rose and gained their independence from the feudal powers that be,
In this recap episode we look back over the period from the fall of the Lombard kingdom at the hands of Charlemagne in 774 to the year 1000.
We take just a moment to mourn Otto I and then proceed to see how his son, Otto II, got on with his attempt to hold the Holy Roman Empire together and even try to expand to all of the Italian peninsula while dealing with the usual pope complications.
We have a look at the system that Charlemagne set up in Italy, the administration, the economy and the educational reform. We also take a time to have a look at how the peninsula was divided up at this point and the ongoing relationship between the Frankish rulers and the popes of Rome.