051 – Communes rising

We take a look at how a new form of local government, the Communes rose and gained their independence from the feudal powers that be,

 

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026 – Another Otto (II)

We take just a moment to mourn Otto I and then proceed to see how his son, Otto II, got on with his attempt to hold the Holy Roman Empire together and even try to expand to all of the Italian peninsula while dealing with the usual pope complications.

 

014 – Carolingian Italy

We have a look at the system that Charlemagne set up in Italy, the administration, the economy and the educational reform. We also take a time to have a look at how the peninsula was divided up at this point and the ongoing relationship between the Frankish rulers and the popes of Rome.