061 – Prelude to Legnano

After the formation of the Lombard League of the communes of northern Italy a clash with Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa had become almost inevitable. Both sides now started to prepare for the confrontation that would decide the future of Italy.

Advertisements

045 – Matilda of Tuscany, the iron countess of Canossa Part 1

We look at the life of Matilda of Canossa, starting from the history of her family through her childhood, the humiliation of Canossa and to the start of the war against Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV.

The episode brings together parts from previous episodes, adding some new details and considerations.

040 – Half-time in the investiture controversy

The investiture controversy heats up with an anti-king elected in Germany and an anti-pope elected by Henry IV who then take the fight against Gregory and Matilde down into Italy with the Normans of Robert Guiscard waiting in the wings.

039 – A sticky end and the humiliation of Canossa

We see how Godfrey the Hunchback of Lorain, husband of the countess Matilda of Canossa meets a rather nasty “end” and how the investiture controversy reaches a high point and slides towards war.