This is a general timeline of the story so far in the podcast

410 – The visigoth King, Alaric, invades Italy and sacks rome

452 – Attilla the Hunn invades Italy and arrives in Pavia where he is convinced to turn back by pope Leo I

475 – Birth of Severinus Boethius

476 – End of the Western Roman Empire. Odoacer becomes “king” of Italy

480 – Cassiodorus is born in Squillace. Possible year of birth of St. Benedict

488 – King of the Ostrogoths Theodoric starts his long march west

489 – 28th August. Odoacer meets Thodroci along the banks of the Isonso and is defeated

30th august. The two armies meet again and Odoacer is again defeated

493 – Ravenna falls to the Ostogoth siege and Odoacer is killed along with his family and followers

493 – Theodoric completes the cinquest of Italy

500 – Theodoric visits Rome and published an edict with 144 articles

523 – Relationships between Theodoric, Boethius break down over Simmachus

524 – Justin’s edict against heresies

524 – Boethius executed

526 – Death of Theodoric

529 – The monastery at Montecassino is completed

535 – Amalasunta is killed by order of her cousin Theodahad

535 – the general Belisarius arrives in Sicily

539 – First Frankish invasion of Northern Italy

540 – Gregory the Great is born in Rome

554 – The emperor Justinian issues the Pragmatica sanzione giving the Italian bishops greater autonomy and administrative power

568 – Alboino’s Lombards enter Italy. Milan falls on 3rd September

572 – Pavia surrenders to the Lombardsl. In the same year Alboin is assassinated in a plot by his wife Rosamunda. Cleph is acclaimed king.

574 – First appearance of the Duchies

578 – The Dukes of Spoleto and Benevento lay siege to Rome, but are dissuaded by pope Pelagius’s offer of gold

590 – Gregory the great is elected pope

599 – Italy is divided into three spheres of influence: Lombards, Bizantines and Romans

604 – Death of Gregory the great

636 – 652 – Reign of Rotary

643 – Rotary publishes a civil and penal code in a 388 chapter edict

651 – Start of Arab expansion

663 – Constans II invades the Duchy of Benevento, but is beaten back

668 – Constans II dies in Sicily

712 – Liutprand becomes king of the Lombards

726 – Emperor Leo III issues his iconoclast edict

732 – Charles Martel defeats the Arabs at Poiters, halting their advance into Europe

739 – Liutprand takes 4 cities of the Roman Duchy, including Sutri

742 – The cities are given to the pope instead of to the Byzantine empire

744 – Death of Liuprand

751 – The Lombard king Aistulf takes Ravenna and the Pentapolis, putting and end to the Byzantine Exarcate

754 – Aistulf is defeated by the Franks in the Susa valley

756 – Aistulf dies in a hunting accident and is succeeded by Desiderius

757 – Pope Stephen II dies

768 – Pepin the short dies leaving the kingdom to his sons Charles and Carloman

774 – Charlemagne defeats king Desiderius, putting n end to the Lombard kingdom

795 – Pope Hadrian dies and pope Leo III is elected

800 – Charlemagne is crowned holy Roman emperor in Rome by pope Leo III

806 – Charlemagne divides up the empire among his sons

810 – Charlemagne’s son Pipin and king of Italy dies and his son Berengarius becomes king

814 – Charlemagne dies and his son Luis the Pious becomes emperor

819 – Berengarius is blinded and later dies

827 – The Arabs start the conquest of Sicily

843 – The treaty of Verdun divides up the empire between the sons of Luis the Pious. Lothar receives Italy

855 – Lothar dies, Luis II inherits Italy

875 – Charles the bald becomes emperor

879 – Charles the fat becomes king of Italy

888 – Charles the fat is deposed

893 – Arnulf of Carinthia enters Italy to aid Bernegarius, Marquis of Friuli and future king of Italy against Guido, Duke of Spoleto and king of Italy. Guido dies and is succeeded by his son Lamberto, who is then crowned king by pope Formusus

895 – Pope Formosus is imprisoned by Lamberto in Rome for seeking help from Arnulf of Carinthia against the Spoleto faction. Arnulf lays siege to Rome and frees the pope.

896 – Pope Formosus dies and the Spoleto faction elects Stephen IV

897 – Posthumous trial of Fromosus. Assassination of Stephen IV

898 – Pope John IX is elected. He rehabilitates Formosus

899 – Berengarius of Friuli is defeated by Hungarian mercenaries

904 – Sergius III is elected pope thanks to the Spoleto faction lead by Marozia, the new oboe’s lover

905 – Luis of Provence enters Italy, called by the nobles to depose Berengarius, but he is defeated by the latter.

914 – John X is elected pope and he crowns Berengarius emperor

924 – Beremgarius is assassinated in Verona

932 – Hugo of Provence is crowned king of Italy in Pavia and then enters Rome where he marries Marozia, widow of Albert of Spoleto and then Guido of Tuscany. Hugo is ousted by the son of Marozia, Albert of Rome who becomes lord of the city

936 – Otto I is crowned king of Germany

950 – Berengarius of Ivrea is crowned king of Italy along with his son Adalbert

951 – Otto I enters Italy and is crowned king

954 – Albert of Rome, son of Marozia dies. His son, Octavian becomes ruler of Rome and later pope.

962 – Otto I is crowned in Rome, the Germanic Holy Roman Empire is founded.

973 – Otto I dies

982 – Otto II loses the battle of Stilo to the Saracens and is almost killed

996 – Otto III descends into Italy and defeats the Roman faction opposing pope John XIV and then places his cousins Gregory V on the papal throne

1002 – Otto III dies outside if Rome after being sent away by its inhabitants

1004 – Henry II is crowned king of Italy after defeating Arduin of Ivrea

1012 – In Rome the Crescenzi family los power to the Tuscolo who elect Benedict VIII

1014 – Henry II is crowned Holy Roman Emperor

1015 – Arduin of Ivrea dies

1018 – Aribert is made bishop of Milan

1024 – Both pope Benedict VIII and Henry II die

1026 – Conrad II is elected Emperor

1033 – Benedict IX is elected pope

1037 – Conrad II issues the Constitutio de feudis, giving lower vassals hereditary rights

1039 – Conrad II dies and is succeeded by Henry III

1044 – The Romans rebel against Benedict IX

1045 – After a year of anarchy, Clement II is elected pope and kicks off a spiritual reform

1046 – Henry III deposed three popes trying to put an end to Roman interference in the election of the popes

Matilda of Canossa is born

1047 – Hostilities start between Henry III and Godfrey the bearded and his wife Beatrix of Tuscany.

1049 – Pope Leo IX is elected

1053 – Leo IX leads a military expedition against the Normans and is defeated at the battle of Civitate by Robert Guiscard

1054 – The great east- west schism occurs

1055 – Leo IX dies and is substituted by Victor II

1056 – Henry III dies and is succeeded by his son Henry IV

1059 – Nicolas II determines that popes must be elected by Cadinals

1071 – The Seljuk Turks occupy Jerusalem

1072 – Roger of Hauteville takes Palermo from the Arabs

1073 – Ildeprando of Soana is elected pope as Gregory VII

1075 – Gregory VII sets out his reform program in the dictatus papaw

1076 – In a council at Worms Henry IV of Germany deposes Gregory VII and is in turn excommunicated by the pope

1077 – After three days as a penitent at Canossa, Henry IV is forgiven by Gregory VII

The German nobles elected a new king Rudolf of Swabia

1080 – Rudolf is killed by Henry at the battle of Hohenmölsen