in the first half of the 12th century, with communes popping up like mushrooms, Rome wasn’t just gonna sit back and let them have all the fun. However, if there’s something about Rome, it’s that there is always a pope around.
We accompany Duke Roger of Sicily, Puglia and Calabria in his attempt to set up a kingdom before we take a look around our spanking new communes.
We finally get back to the chronological narration of Italian history, popping in to see a new Holy Roman Emperor, a new pope, or couple of popes and catch up with the ambitious Normans
Having set up the start of the communes, we take a look at what it would be like to wander around an Italian city in the early 12th century
We take a look at how a new form of local government, the Communes rose and gained their independence from the feudal powers that be,