131 – Milan, chaos in the duchy (1402 – 1412)

After the untimely death of the first duke of Milan, Gian Galeazzo Visconti, the duchy is thrown into turmoil as the widow, Caterina Visconti attempts to hold onto the realm of her sons, Giovanni Maria and Filippo Maria through internal intrigue and external military pressure from Florence, Venice and many others trying to take advantage of Milan’s moment of weakness.

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101 – The many paths to communal demise (up to early 1300’s)

As we really dig into the 14th century, we look at an overview of the different ways in which the communes turned into the signorie, cities and groups of cities ruled over by a single hereditary ruler.

The website mentioned in the episode RESCI, the catalogue of the signorie in the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries can be found here:

RESCI Catalogue

062 – The battle of Legnano

Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa and the Cities of the Lombard League gather their forces and clash at a small town outside of Milan, called Legnano. The battle would echo through the centuries to be remembered in Italian politics to this day.

061 – Prelude to Legnano

After the formation of the Lombard League of the communes of northern Italy a clash with Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa had become almost inevitable. Both sides now started to prepare for the confrontation that would decide the future of Italy.