101 – The many paths to communal demise

As we really dig into the 14th century, we look at an overview of the different ways in which the communes turned into the signorie, cities and groups of cities ruled over by a single hereditary ruler.

The website mentioned in the episode RESCI, the catalogue of the signorie in the 13th, 14th and 15th centuries can be found here:

RESCI Catalogue

062 – The battle of Legnano

Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa and the Cities of the Lombard League gather their forces and clash at a small town outside of Milan, called Legnano. The battle would echo through the centuries to be remembered in Italian politics to this day.

061 – Prelude to Legnano

After the formation of the Lombard League of the communes of northern Italy a clash with Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa had become almost inevitable. Both sides now started to prepare for the confrontation that would decide the future of Italy.

040 – Half-time in the investiture controversy

The investiture controversy heats up with an anti-king elected in Germany and an anti-pope elected by Henry IV who then take the fight against Gregory and Matilde down into Italy with the Normans of Robert Guiscard waiting in the wings.