We see how Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV ended up, as well as his long-term nemesis Matilda of Tuscany, countess of Canossa. Meanwhile we change couple of popes and get a new Emperor, yet another Henry as he also struggles with a couple of popes on their way to the concordat of Worms.
We see how Urban II took the investiture controversy to a whole different level and scored major PR points for the papacy with the first crusade.
To commemorate Holocaust remembrance day, we look at Italy’s role in the tragedy, from the initial indifference to the Jews in Italy, to the racial laws of 1938 and the deportations and killings of the war period.
After the turmoil of the papacy of Gregory VII, we see a pope that just didn’t want the job and follow the final years of the great Norman Robert Guiscard.
The investiture controversy heats up with an anti-king elected in Germany and an anti-pope elected by Henry IV who then take the fight against Gregory and Matilde down into Italy with the Normans of Robert Guiscard waiting in the wings.