We take a break to look at the increase in heretical ideas and movements in the 12th and 13th centuries such as the Cathars and Waldensians and how the church decided to deal with the rising tide of critical opposition to it.
We see the reign of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II to its end as he faces off with Gregory IX and then Innocent IV, all the while dealing with the ever rebellious communes of northern Italy in their continuous struggle between pro-imperial Ghibellines and pro-papal Guelphs, up to the Battle of Parma in 1247.
We take a moment to look more into the private life of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II and see how his court, as well as seeing a little naughtiness going on, was a cradle of culture and science. We then deal with a rebellion by his first born son Henry before we see a rematch of Empire vs Lombard League.
After his coronation as Holy Roman Emperor in 1220, Frederick II has to first consolidate the south, facing the Muslim rebellion and then deal with the insistence of the popes for a new Crusade, an issue he will find a completely unprecedented solution for.
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