018 – A clear-up on kingdoms and back up the boot in the ninth century

We first cleat up the concept of the “Kingdom of Italy” and then make our way back up from the Arab Emirate of Sicily to look at the Principality of Benevento, the Duchy of Naples and the Duchy of Spoleto in the ninth century as the Carolingians do their thing up north.

 

 

Principati

017 – Some silly Syracusans, some Saracens and Sicily, plus pirates

We leave the north for a while and take a look at Sicily. First we have a quick peak at the start of the Arab raids on the island in the early seventh century and then head back to the ninth when Sicily became an Arab Emirate.