After the formation of the Lombard League of the communes of northern Italy a clash with Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa had become almost inevitable. Both sides now started to prepare for the confrontation that would decide the future of Italy.
We take a look at how a new form of local government, the Communes rose and gained their independence from the feudal powers that be,
The life and times of the most powerful woman in Italy between the 11th and 12th century who could have been Queen.
We continue the story of Matilda of Canossa as war breaks out with Emperor Henry IV. We then see yet another failed attempt at marriage, the end of the fight against Henry IV and how things went with his son and successor, Henry V while alone she tan one of the largest areas in Italy.
Below is a map of the lands over which Matilda ruled
As a new millennium dawns on the Italian pensala, we see that nothing much has changed, at least for the moment, as we see Henry II of Bavaria attempting to take power in Italy and then become emperor.