In this recap episode we look back over the period from the fall of the Lombard kingdom at the hands of Charlemagne in 774 to the year 1000.
Otto I of Germany continues to consolidate his hold over Italy, attempting to go all the way south and dislodge the remaining Byzantine presence, meanwhile setting up his son with a Byzantine princess, Theophanu.
We take a look at the reign of the teenage oboe John XII and the start of the struggle between the papacy and the Holy Roman Empire
We look at how Alberic II did after taking control of Rome from his mother Marozia and his stepfather Guido of Provence. Then we jave a look at the usual confusion in northern Italy before the descent of the Saxon king Otto I, while we wait for the unforgettable pope John Xii to come on the scene.