093 – A change of scenery for the papacy and an anachronistic emperor

The papacy, under Clement V heads off for its long exile to Avignone and then Holy Roman Emperor Henry VII tries to move back the clock on the Italian scene.

040 – Half-time in the investiture controversy

The investiture controversy heats up with an anti-king elected in Germany and an anti-pope elected by Henry IV who then take the fight against Gregory and Matilde down into Italy with the Normans of Robert Guiscard waiting in the wings.