We go back over around 50 years from the death of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II to beyond 1300 to retrace the steps of the kingdom of Sicily, the war of the Sicilian Vespers, the northern communes and maritime republics as well as looking over at Sardinia and keeping an eye as always on the papacy.
Boniface VIII crushes the internal opposition of the Colonna, organises the first Jubilee, dabble in Italian politics including Florence and then clashes once again with Philipp IV of France, which seals his fate.
We go back to the abdication of pope Celestine V in 1295 and see the rise to power of one of the most controverstial popes in history, Boniface VIII in this first of two episodes on the man and his time.
The War of the Italian Vespers gets quite confusing, but in the end finally leads to the Peace of Calbelotta in 1302 in which the island of Sicily is separated from the rest of the kingdom.
We have a look at important events in Italy on and around Christmas as well as explore the traditions, including that of the Christmas witch.
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