After the formation of the Lombard League of the communes of northern Italy a clash with Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa had become almost inevitable. Both sides now started to prepare for the confrontation that would decide the future of Italy.
We see how, after sorting out Milan, Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa also goes on to try and deal with pope Alexander III. Meanwhile, the communes start to learn that there can be strength in numbers, with the League of Verona in 1164 and the Lombard and Italic Leagues in 1167.
We take a look at how a new form of local government, the Communes rose and gained their independence from the feudal powers that be,
We continue the story of Matilda of Canossa as war breaks out with Emperor Henry IV. We then see yet another failed attempt at marriage, the end of the fight against Henry IV and how things went with his son and successor, Henry V while alone she tan one of the largest areas in Italy.
Below is a map of the lands over which Matilda ruled
We have a chat with Italian teacher and history enthusiast Daniela Pellacani from Carpi on one of the heroes of the Risorgimento, Ciro Menotti.