After the turmoil of the papacy of Gregory VII, we see a pope that just didn’t want the job and follow the final years of the great Norman Robert Guiscard.
To celebrate the birthday of “A History of Italy” we are releasing a free versions of NewsCappuccino in which we talk about national stereotypes.
The investiture controversy heats up with an anti-king elected in Germany and an anti-pope elected by Henry IV who then take the fight against Gregory and Matilde down into Italy with the Normans of Robert Guiscard waiting in the wings.
We have a look at important events in Italy on and around Christmas as well as explore the traditions, including that of the Christmas witch.
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We see how Godfrey the Hunchback of Lorain, husband of the countess Matilda of Canossa meets a rather nasty “end” and how the investiture controversy reaches a high point and slides towards war.